Virtual-worlds Ryan's case study

3D Printing - Ryan Dae Heon Oh

  • How does it work?
  1. 3D printing, or commonly "additive manufacturing", AM, is a process of making a three-dimensional object.
  2. Successive layers of material are laid down under computer control. These objects can be of almost any shape or geometry, and are produced from a 3D model or other electronic data source. A 3D printer is a type of industrial robot.
  3. 3D printing in the term's original sense refers to processes that sequentially deposit material onto a powder bed with inkjet printer heads.
  4. More recently the meaning of the term has expanded to encompass a wider variety of techniques such as extrusion and sintering based processes. Technical standards generally use the term additive manufacturing for this broader sense.
  5. Modeling: 3D printable models may be created with a computer aided design (CAD) package or via a 3D scanner or via a plain digital camera and photogrammetry software.
  6. Printing: Before printing a 3D model from an STL file, it must first be examined for "manifold errors," this step being called the "fixup." Especially STLs that have been produced from a model obtained through 3D scanning often have many manifold errors in them that need to be fixed. Examples of manifold errors are surfaces that do not connect, or gaps in the models. Examples of software that can be used to fix these errors are netfabb and Meshmixer, or even Cura, or Slic3r.
  • How is it used?
  1. AM technologies found applications starting in the 1980s in product development, data visualization, rapid prototyping, and specialized manufacturing. Their expansion into production (job production, mass production, and distributed manufacturing) has been under development in the decades since.
  2. There are many applications for AM technologies, including architecture, construction (AEC), industrial design, automotive, aerospace, military, engineering, dental and medical industries, biotech (human tissue replacement), fashion, footwear, jewelry, eyewear, education, geographic information systems, food, and many other fields.
  3. 3D printing could become a mass market product enabling consumers to save money associated with purchasing common household objects.
  4. For example, instead of going to a store to buy an object made in a factory by injection molding (such as a measuring cup or a funnel), a person might instead print it at home from a downloaded 3D model.

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